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[  -  ]  "Polypoid hypertrophic gastropathia similar to human Morbus Ménétrier-Disease in the pars pylorica of a warmblood-mixgelding "

Pferdeheilkunde 32 (2016) p. 606-610
(Rapp S.; Aupperle H.)

Language: German

A 12-year-old warmblood-mix gelding showed clinical signs of poor feed intake and decreased performance. Additionally cough was des-cribed. Therefore the gelding was first treated against chronic bronchitis. The cough disappeared but clinical signs of weight loss and poorfeed intake prolonged. That was the reason why an endoscopic examination of the stomach was performed. First endoscopy showed a largeconcretion of feed material. A visualization of the pars glandularis and the pars non-glandularis as well as the pylorus was not possible. Therefore a laxative therapy with paraffin and Glauber solution over a nasogastric tube was initiated. The endoscopic examination of thestomach could be done on the third day. Abnormal radially arranged mucosal growths on the pars pylorica ensured that polyps were seen.The margo plicatus also showed ulcera (ESGD 3/4). The horse was treated with omeprazole and metoclopramide for six weeks. After that,a second endoscopic examination of the stomach was performed. As well as the ulcera on the margo plicatus as the gastric polyps of thepars pylorica showed no improvement. Another period of treatment should start for about two months of duration. In that time, the geldingshould be kept on pasture during the day and get on shavings over the night. Next to gras, soaked cobs of hay should be offered for feed.Ten days later, the gelding showed acute signs of colic at home. The condition of the horse was getting bad so the decision for surgery wasmade. During the laparotomy under general anesthesia some incarcerated small intestine due to a hernia foraminis omentalis was detected.The owner did not give the permission for resection (3m), so the gelding was euthanized during surgery. After that a transmural biopsy wastaken from the region of the pars pylorica due to scientific interests. A post-mortem examination was not desired by the owner. The tissuesample was fixed in 4% formalin and sent for histological examination. Here a diffuse polypoid hypertrophic gastropathy (Morbus Ménétrier)was diagnosed. Main characteristics were the markedly elongated foveolae gastricae of the hyperplastic gastric mucosa without any signs ofmalignancy. Helicobacter sp. was not found in the pathological examination. So far the Morbus Ménétrier was not described in a horse yet.

English version of the article, PDF (288 KB)  "Triple infection with agamid adenovirus 1, Encephaliton cuniculi-like microsporidium and enteric coccidia in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)"

Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere 2016: Heft 5, S.355-358

(Lionel Schilliger; Véronique Mentré; Rachel E. Marschang; Alexandra Nicolier; Barbara Richter)

A 2-month-old juvenile central bearded dragon was presented for anorexia and cachexia. Another specimen from the same cage had died suddenly 2 weeks prior. Fecal analysis revealed a high quantity of Isospora amphiboluri and a few pinworm eggs. Other examinations were not performed and the animal died a few days later despite supportive care. A third individual from the same cage presented with anorexia and a distended coelom and was euthanized. In this third dragon, histological examination revealed intestinal coccidiosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions compatible with adenovirus infection, acute hepatic necrosis with intrahepatocytic and intraenteritic organisms typical of microsporidia and renal gout.
A PCR confirmed the diagnosis of adenovirosis. Sequencing showed that the PCR product was 100% identical to the corresponding portion of the agamid adenovirus 1 genome. A PCR for the detection of Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi was positive. Partial sequencing revealed 100% identity to an E. cuniculi-like organism previously found in bearded dragons. In cases where environmental factors such as poor hygiene or stress can be excluded, the presence of opportunistic pathogens in high numbers can be due to a systemic (viral) infection with temporary immunosuppression.

[  -  ]  "Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Tumours in Snakes: 
           A Retrospective Study of 33 Cases "

Journal of Comparative Pathology, 155 (2016) 76-87.  doi:10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.05.009
(J. Dietz, K. O. Heckers, H. Aupperle and M. Pees)

Cutaneous and subcutaneous soft tissue tumours have been rarely described in detail in snakes. Several malignant entities show strikingly similar histological patterns and therefore the term soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has become a standard histopathological diagnosis. The present study characterizes soft tissue tumours in 33 snakes. Samples included 29 surgically excised masses and four carcasses. Additionally, six animals were humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination following tumour recurrence. Benign neoplasms (n = 8) were described as lipomas of varying differentiation. Recurrence was observed in two of five snakes in which the clinical course was recorded. Malignant neoplasms (n = 25) were diagnosed as STS and graded according to a three-point system previously applied to canine STS. Five (20%) of the primary tumours were classified as grade 1, eleven (44%) as grade 2 and nine (36%) as grade 3 sarcomas. Clinically, recurrence of STS was observed in 11 of 17 cases with available follow-up information. Pathologically, multiple cutaneous metastases were found in one grass snake (Natrix natrix), while visceral metastases were observed in one carpet python (Morelia spilota) and two corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Metastatic risk appears to increase with histological grade. Surgical excision generally represents the current therapy of choice for STS. This study includes the first reports of conventional lipomas in a ribbon snake (Thamnophis radix), angiolipomas in a black-headed python (Aspidites melanocephalus) and a corn snake as well as of STS in a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus), emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), grass snake (N. natrix), African house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) and common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

[  -  ]  "Whole genome characterization of a chelonian orthoreovirus strain identifies significant genetic diversity and may classify reptile orthoreoviruses into distinct species. "
Virus Research, Volume 215, 2 April 2016, Pages 94–98. ELSEVIER
(Kugler R, Marschang RE, Ihász K, Lengyel G, Jakab F, Bányai K, Farkas S.)

In this study we report the sequence and phylogenetic characterization of an orthoreovirus strain, CH1197/96, isolated from a spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) on chicken embryo fibroblast cells. The 23,957bp long genome sequence was obtained by combined use of semiconductor and capillary sequencing. Although the genomic characterization showed that the virus was most similar to the bush viper reovirus strain, 47/02, and in phylogenies performed with all segments the two strains formed a monophyletic group, the nucleotide (48.4-70.3%) and amino acid (39.2-80.7%) sequence identity values were moderate between the two reptile origin reoviruses. Based on our results and existing classification criteria for the genus Orthoreovirus, the tortoise reovirus strain CH1197/96 might be the first representative of a novel reptilian origin Orthoreovirus species.

[  -  ]  "Virus distribution and detection in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimental infection with three different ferlavirus strains."
Vet Mircrobiol 182, 2016: p.213-222.   doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.024.

(Pees M, Neul A, Müller K, Schmidt V, Truyen U, Leineceker N, Marschang RE)

Ferlaviruses are important pathogens of snakes. However, factors influencing the pathogenicity of individual isolates as well as optimal protocols for virus detection in tissues of infected snakes have been insufficiently studied. The objectives of this study were to compare virus detection using previously described PCR and cell culture protocols following infection with three genetically distinct ferlaviruses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) as a model species. Groups of 12 corn snakes were each inoculated intratracheally with a genogroup A, B, or C ferlavirus. Tracheal washes and cloacal swabs were tested for virus shedding on days 16 and 28. Three animals were each euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49. Beside immunohistochemistry of lung tissue, several organs (lung, intestine, pancreas, kidney, brain) were tested for the presence of ferlavirus. Distinct differences were noted in the pathogenicity of the three viruses, with a genotype B isolate causing the greatest pathology. PCR was more sensitive in comparison to cell culture, but results varied depending on the tissues. Ferlaviruses spread rapidly into the tissues, including the brain. Overall average detection rate was 72%, and was highest on day 16. There were differences between the groups, with the most virulent strain causing 100% positive samples at the end of the study. Some snakes were able to clear the infection. Shedding via cloaca was seen only on day 28. For ante-mortem sampling, a tracheal wash sample is recommended, for post mortem diagnosis, a pooled organ sample should be tested.


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